Bibliography

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OVERVIEW

Correct References Formatting. Bibliographic References Guidelines

Appropriate compiling of References is one of the important stages of writing an author’s abstract, course project, graduation work, dissertation (thesis), article and, basically, any scientific work. The process of bibliography formatting takes a lot of time as it complies with strict standardization; and the recommendations for the reference list are spelt out several pages of the appropriate formats such as MLA, APA, Harvard, Chicago Styles, in addition to other standards that can be required by foreign scientific journals and educational institutions.

References are often made in manual way; the reference list includes both the titles of literature sources and portals, websites, periodicals where the author got information for the work. Moreover, the rules of bibliographic record formatting depend on the journal or publisher as they set own standard that regulates both the writing format and the sequence of bibliographic records in the list (by chronology, alphabetical sorting by the source title/authors’ names, etc.) for each type of source.

We suggest you to take to automated formatting of reference list and pay attention to our online service in order not to keep in mind all the information and not to dig into the nuances of reference list formatting on different standards. It will help you to create a bibliography for any scientific work correctly and quickly, either for journal articles or course project. You will get more free time for rest and scientific research, as the references are made automatically with respect to all methodological guidelines.

Rules of reference list formatting

Unfortunately, the bibliography is not a chaotic listing of used sources in the form of a list. Any text of educational literature, books, electronic sources, monographs, reports are indicated and described according to the strict standard requirements. Typically, references are added in alphabetical order including the authors’ initials, the year of book or article publication, the publisher and the city where the source was printed. If you need to add an electronic resource in the reference list, it is necessary to write the URL of the page, the type of publication, the author’s initials, etc.

However, with that the common features of bibliographic records of documents on different standards come to an end. The reference list has significant differences on such standards as ISO, APA, MLA, Chicago Styles etc. For example, for the bibliographic reference formatting according to the MLA style you will have to buy a handbook on the official website. There are no methodological recommendations for free, you can find only the basic requirements.

How to make a reference list using our service?

You do not need to spend hours in order to make a reference list and check all its paragraphs for conformity with the required standard. Take an advantage of our online service and rate its user-friendliness. Bibliography service presented on 4Author website is an automatic creation and generation of bibliographic records in various styles (APA, MLA, Harvard, Chicago, Vancoucer, ACS, ASA, GSA, ISO, MHRA, DSTU, GOST) online. This citation generator is very convenient if you need to make not only a reference list, but also in-text references. Furthermore, it is very easy to do! Click “Create a new record” in order to form the bibliographic record elements correctly. Then choose the required standard, type and subtype of publication (book/ article/ patent/ conference/ dissertation (thesis) abstract).

Then fill in the information about the sources. The next information should be given:

  • Language;
  • Document title;
  • Author credentials (full name);
  • Publisher’s imprint;
  • Landing pages in the text of the work.

In addition to the date, you should provide the serial number, issue of the source for periodicals (newspapers, journals). You can also give additional information. Make sure to indicate the mode of access to the resource, URL address without spacing issues and punctuation marks and access date for Internet sources. After filling in all this information, you can immediately generate bibliographic data for your source according to the selected standard at your choice (APA, MLA, Chicago, Vancouver, Harvard, ISO, GSA, MHRA etc.).

It is noteworthy that it may be possible to create a bibliographic record in several formats at once; this is very convenient for References, if the material will be published in different publications with different citation rules. In addition, all created bibliographic records are stored in your personal account on the 4author website. You will be able to access them with no trouble from anywhere, anytime.

Examples of reference list formatting for a scientific paper

We will give a reference list that was got with our service as an example right here in order to provide insight into it. It is a case of an article published in a scientific journal.

ISO Standard

  • BRAHA, Jeanne. Science communication at scientific societies. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. 2017, 70, 85-89.

APA Standard

  • Braha, J. (2017). Science communication at scientific societies. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 85-89.

MLA Standard

  • Braha, Jeanne. "Science communication at scientific societies." Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, vol. 70, 2017, pp. 85-89.

Chicago Standard

  • Braha, Jeanne. "Science communication at scientific societies". Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology 70 (2017): 85-89.

Harvard Standard

  • Braha, J. (2017) 'Science communication at scientific societies'. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology 70, 85-89.

ACS Standard

  • Braha, J. Science communication at scientific societies. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology 2017, 70, 85-89.

MHRA Standard

  • Jeanne Braha, 'Science communication at scientific societies', Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, (2017), 85-89.

GSA Standard

  • Braha, J., 2017, Science communication at scientific societies: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, v. 70, p. 85-89.

ASA Standard

  • Braha, Jeanne. 2017. "Science communication at scientific societies". Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology 70,85-89.

Vancouver Standard

  • Braha J. Science communication at scientific societies. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. 20177085-89.

GOST Standard (all-Union State Standard)

  • Braha, J. Science communication at scientific societies / J. Braha // Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. — 2017. — Т. 70. — C. 85-89.

DSTU Standard (State Standards of Ukraine)

  • Braha J. Science communication at scientific societies. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. 2017. Т. 70. C. 85-89.

Or (example of an article with a DOI).

ISO Standard

  • GUI, Q., C. LIU, and D. DU. Globalization of science and international scientific collaboration: A network perspective. Geoforum [online]. 2019, (105), 1-12. Available from: doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2019.06.017.

APA Standard

  • Gui, Q., Liu, C., & Du, D. (2019). Globalization of science and international scientific collaboration: A network perspective. Geoforum, (105), 1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2019.06.017.

MLA Standard

  • Gui, Q., et al. "Globalization of science and international scientific collaboration: A network perspective." Geoforum, no. 105, 2019, pp. 1-12, doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2019.06.017.

Chicago Standard

  • Gui, Q., C. Liu and D. Du. "Globalization of science and international scientific collaboration: A network perspective". Geoforum no. 105 (2019): 1-12, doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2019.06.017

Harvard Standard

  • Gui, Q., Liu, C., and Du, D. (2019) 'Globalization of science and international scientific collaboration: A network perspective'. Geoforum [online] (105), 1-12. available from <https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2019.06.017 >.

ACS Standard

  • Gui, Q.; Liu, C.; Du, D. Globalization of science and international scientific collaboration: A network perspective. Geoforum [Online] 2019, (105), 1-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2019.06.017.

MHRA Standard

  • Q. Gui, C. Liu and D. Du, 'Globalization of science and international scientific collaboration: A network perspective', Geoforum, (2019), 1-12 <http://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2019.06.017 >.

GSA Standard

  • Gui, Q., Liu, C., and Du, D., 2019, Globalization of science and international scientific collaboration: A network perspective: Geoforum, no. 105, p. 1-12, doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2019.06.017.

ASA Standard

  • Gui, Q., C. Liu and D. Du. 2019. "Globalization of science and international scientific collaboration: A network perspective". Geoforum 1-12. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2019.06.017

Vancouver Standard

  • Gui Q, Liu C, Du D. Globalization of science and international scientific collaboration: A network perspective. Geoforum [Internet]. 2019;(105):1-12. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2019.06.017.

GOST Standard (all-Union State Standard)

  • Gui, Q. Globalization of science and international scientific collaboration: A network perspective [Electronic resource] / Q. Gui, C. Liu, D. Du // Geoforum. – 2019. – № 105. – P. 1-12. – Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2019.06.017.

DSTU Standard (State Standards of Ukraine)

  • Gui Q., Liu C., Du D. Globalization of science and international scientific collaboration: A network perspective. Geoforum. 2019. № 105. Р. 1-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2019.06.017.

As you can see, the combined reference list has been compiled in accordance with all requirements of the standards, but we have saved a good part of time and efforts while doing it.