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How to create an abstract? How to write a scientific abstract online and manually?

The abstract is a summary and brief description of the scientific work. The novelty and prospects of the research, problems under authors’ consideration, the main experiment results and the brief substance of the work are described in the abstract in order to get the reader interested in reading the full text of the work. At the same time, the abstract of a scientific article should be unique and SEO-optimized that means it should contain keywords relevant to the subject so that the work is not lost in Google search results, journal catalogues and databases.

As you can see, the scientific abstract of your article, book, graduation paper is very important. If the text is properly written, then the chances of a successful article search on the Internet increase significantly; and the larger the readership, the higher the citation rate in the scientific community is. However, there are specified requirements for the abstract writing. Thereinafter, we will consider the rules of abstract writing, give practical advice, present our own abstract generator (automatic abstract maker), and show examples of abstract formatting by using automated tools.

How to write an abstract for a book, article or other paper correctly?

So, we got through with an abstract, it remains only to understand how it is written, what phrases are used, and what requirements are specified. Let us start with the last point.

  • Any English or Russian article abstract is limited to 500 characters without spaces; a larger abstract is undesirable;
  • The text should be written in a scientific style, in a concise way, without the use of long inductory structures and extraneous terminology, without mistakes;
  • The abstract should epitomize the research essence, therefore, the purpose and subject of the research are indicated only if the work title is ambiguous;
  • The research methodology should be described briefly and plainly in order to epitomize the novelty of the results obtained during the article author work;
  • The conclusions necessarily epitomize author’s thoughts regarding the research results implementation; well-known facts are not written in the conclusions, as these facts are unable to interest the reader.

Summarizing the above, you must fulfill the main purpose of an abstract that is to formulate the work relevance and the analysis methods used, to put forth research results and the practical significance, using standard phrases for the publication formatting. As you can see, the rules for abstract composing look simple, the recommendations are aimed at increasing efficiency as they help to make the abstract useful, interesting, informative and easy to read.

However, do not forget that the abstract will also be indexed by search engines, so it must be unique and relevant to the search queries, and a potential reader will search for material according to them.

The scientific article abstract, made using a special 4author service for creating abstracts, will be compiled according to all the rules, and a special template will ensure the relevance of readers’ requests. It will take you much less time to create a brief description of your work in automatic mode than manually and that is especially pleasant.

Abstract creating using 4author online service

Our service will allow you to concentrate on the main text of the manuscript, and not on the structure of the abstract, trying to meet the various requirements of the standards and avoid mistakes when writing the abstract. It is available to create automatically:

  • Abstract in APA Style (APA Style Abstract)
  • Abstract in MLA Style (MLA Style Abstract)
  • Abstract according to the requirements of American Academy of Science (AAS Abstract)
  • Abstract according to the requirements of GOST (all-Union State Standard) Standard (GOST Abstract)
  • Abstract according to Emerald publishing office requirements (requirements of scientific journal «Business Inform»)

The abstract creation is supported in English, Russian and Ukrainian.

In order to use the service, you just need to click on Create Abstract and specify the following data in the opened form (let us analyze it for the GOST standard):

  • Input language and the title of your work;
  • Authors’ and co-authors’ surnames and initials;
  • Relevance: the importance of the investigated problem is summarized;
  • Statement of the problem: the problem the article is devoted to is described;
  • Ways to solve the problem: specific steps aimed at solving the given problem;
  • Results: the results that were achieved during the study, or a generalization of the full text presentation;
  • Conclusions: the description of the prospects of implementing the results obtained in practice in simple terms;
  • Keywords: words and phrases according to which your work will be displayed in search engines.

At the bottom, the average word count of the abstract is displayed (the word limit depends on the selected standard), buttons for preview and saving of the brief description in the author's personal account. If necessary, you can edit abstracts and use other tools available to registered users. It is worth noting that the service is suitable for educational institutions, making it also possible to compose an abstract for the graduation paper, term work or any other manuscript where the abstract is needed, regardless the subject.

Abstract writing: an example using our service

As you can see, it is quite easy to write an abstract to a scientific work if you have an automated system that allows you to present the main content of the research in a structured form and immediately optimize it for both the reader and search engines.

Here is an example of an abstract for a scientific article:



In this paper, strength and buckling behavior analysis of a ring-stiffened cylindrical shell for the sightseeing submersible subjected to mechanical and thermal loads are studied. Based on the Donnell’s assumption and classical shell theory, the governing equations of strength analysis for the ring-stiffened cylindrical shell are established, and the problems are solved by finite difference method (FDM) and Newmark-β method. Meanwhile, the governing equations of buckling behavior for the ring-stiffened cylindrical shell are set up in view of the energy method, which are resolved by the Ritz method. The research shows that the external load has the most significant influence on the strength of ring-stiffened cylindrical shell. Moreover, compared with other factors, the external load has a great influence on its strength, and the effect of shell thickness on the buckling load of ring-stiffened cylindrical shell is most obvious. The research work can provide theoretical basis for the design and optimizing of underwater equipment such as tourist submarines.

Keywords: Critical buckling Strength Ring-stiffened Underwater Transparent cylindrical shell

It can be seen from the example that the structure of the abstract is quite understandable for reading; it is worth to note the content-richness of the text and its non-congestion. The subject of the research is clear, the obtained results are also understandable, the methods are perfectly disclosed, considered and analyzed. The classic clichés and phrases have been competently used to reveal a concise presentation of information. You immediately understand the essence of the work after reading the abstract. At the same time, all the rules for writing an abstract were kept, and the aspects of the study were clear as a good squeeze of the problematic, essence and results of the work done by the author was provided. This is almost a synopsis in abstract format and in compliance with all spelling rules and bibliographic standards.

We hope that our service will help you to compose an abstract for any topic easily. And it doesn't matter if you need:

  • an abstract for a graduation work
  • an abstract for a book
  • an abstract for a scientific article (article abstract)
  • an abstract for research paper
  • an abstract for lab report
  • an abstract for science fair project
  • etc.

4author will help you to write a good abstract, as well as to arrange it correctly and quickly!