An abstract is
  • a summary of the article/manuscript/ report/scientific work
  • A short summary of the scientific research
  • A guide to the most important parts of your article/manuscript/ report/scientific work

The abstract should represent the content and main results of your article but it can't be its introduction or conclusion. It should be unique and constructively completed as well as briefly characterize the main sections of the article:

  • Relevance (importance of the research problem or the project);
  • Problem statement (for which the research project or article are aimed);
  • The solutions (specific steps focused on solving the existing problem);
  • Results (quantitative or qualitative research results);
  • Conclusions (the implementation of the results of the study; to what extent the work has broadened existing ideas about the issue under study or proposed a new solution to the existing problem).

One or two sentences can be assigned to the description of each section in the abstract.

The abstract should be written in a simple and understandable manner. It is recommended to use common terms as well as to avoid unnecessary details and specific figures, formulas. It is desirable to avoid the citations and to use generalizing formulations in the abstract .

Keywords (5-6 words) a tool that helps indexers and search engines to find relevant documents. In addition, they are necessary for classification of articles by subject. In this regard, the keywords should represent the content of your work and be specific to the field or sub-area of your research.

A tip The maximum words number for the abstract set by journals (magazines) is 150-250 words in order to its fully representation in databases (indexing services).

A good abstract lets the reader know that your paper is worth reading.

We will be happy to help you in creating a unique annotation!