National State Standard (GOST) 7.1:2003

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These are the standards required for the bibliography:


This standard establishes general requirements and rules for the bibliographic description of a document, its part or group of documents such as a set of areas and elements of a bibliographic description, the sequence of their location, content and presentation of elements, application of prescribed punctuation and abbreviations. The standard contains the requirements to the document description that is compiled by libraries, scientific and technical information agencies, state bibliography centers, publishers, and other bibliographic institutions. The standard does not apply to bibliographic references.

The bibliographic description contains the bibliographic information about the document according to certain rules that establish the content and order of areas and elements intended for identification and general characteristics of the document. The bibliographic description is the main part of the bibliographic record. The bibliographic record can also include a title, indexing terms (classification numbers and subject headings), annotation (abstract), document shelf codes, references on additional bibliographic records, the date of document processing completion, the official nature information.

Citation in any form for a term paper or a report should be noted by a footnote to the literary source. The absence of references is a direct reason to accuse the author of plagiarism. Insufficient accuracy and reference completeness will indicate its inconsistency with the standard form. Unlike the Great Defining Dictionary interpretation references in modern scientific works are presented in the subscript and in-line forms. Consider the nuances of each form.

Citation rules

Full Footnote or Endnote

At the end of the sentence with the cited text (or after the cited text and closed quotations) the reference (footnote) number should be before the point. This number appears in the form of a superscript.

You can represent the related information in the page footer after placing the index numbers of the footnotes. The references in the footnotes are similar to the literary sources in the bibliographic list. The difference is that at the end you indicate the exact page number(s) of the cited text in the literary source, not the total page numbers of the literary source.

In-text citation

The inline reference is in the text itself and contains the following information:

  • source number in the bibliography list;
  • page number with the cited information.

In-text references are used much easier but their processing takes more time. The simplicity is that the references are not placed at the end of each page but presented in the bibliography list. The references in your graduation paper or thesis represented with the help of footnotes are placed in a single list at the end of the scientific work. The footnote numbers will correspond to the index numbers of the literary sources in this list. In this case, it will be easier to cite one literary source several times in the text (the information does not have to be rewritten with each citation).


Лукаш, Ю.А. Индивидуальный предприниматель без образования юридического лица [Текст]  / Ю.А. Лукаш. – Москва : Книжный мир, 2002. – 457 с.
Serial / journal article (print)
Тарасова, Н.Г. Смена парадигм в развитии теории и практики градостроительства [Текст]  / Н.Г. Тарасова // Архитектура и строительство России. – 2007. – № 4. – С. 2-7.
Electronic resource (remote access)
Шпринц, Лев. Книга художника: от миллионных тиражей – к единичным экземплярам [Электронный ресурс]  / Л. Шпринц. – Электрон. текстовые дан. – Москва : [б.и.], 2000. – Режим доступа:, свободный.